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Eugene (Gladstone) O'Neill (1888-1953)


One of the greatest American playwrights, restless and bold experimenter, winner of the Nobel Prize for literature in 1936. O'Neill's best-known works include Anna Christine (pub. 1922), Desire Under the Elms (pub.1924), Mourning Becomes Electra (pub. 1931), Long Day's Journey Into Night (pub. 1956), and The Iceman Cometh (prod. 1946). His 45 plays range in style from satire to tragedy. They often depict people who have no hope of controlling their destinies.

"There's little choice between the philosophy you learned from Broadway loafers, and the one Edmund got from his books. They're both rotten to the core. You've both flouted the faith you were born and brought up in – the one true faith of the Catholic Church – and your denial has brought nothing but self-destruction." (Tyrone in Long Day's Journey Into Night)

Eugene Gladstone O'Neill was born in a Manhattan hotel into an Irish-Catholic theatrical family, the son of James O'Neill and Mary Ellen "Ella" Quinlan. His early life was restless: his father, who was an actor, spent most of his career touring in the lead role of the popular melodrama The Count of Monte Cristo. The family lived mainly in hotels. Their seaside cottage in New London, Connecticut, became later the setting for Long Day's Journey Into Night. In 1895 O'Neill was enrolled in the St. Aloysius Academy for Boys, and transferred in 1900 to the DeLa Salle Institute in Manhattan. During these years his mother's addiction to morphine left profound emotional scars on the growing O'Neill. He also found out that his own birth had precipitated her addiction. In 1902 Ella tried to drown herself after running out of morphine. At the age of 63, she spent several months at a convent, where the nuns helped cure her.

O'Neill renounced Catholic Church in his teens. After attending the Betts Academy in Stamford, a non-sectarian preparatory school, he entered Princeton University, but left it after a year, and just spent much of his time in New York waterfront bars and brothels, supporting himself by working at odd jobs, as a gold prospector, a sailor, an actor, and a reporter. In 1909 O'Neill married Kathleen Jenkins. The marriage ended two years later; at that time she was carrying their son, Eugene Jr. O'Neill went to sea in 1910, living the life of a tramp at docksides. Once he attempted suicide, overdosing in a flophouse. He stayed with his family in Connecticut, but was then forced by the onset of tuberculosis to spend six months in a sanatorium. After recovering O'Neill began writing plays. He was enrolled in George Pierce Baker's 47A Workshop at Harvard University (1914-1915), and then joined the Provincetown Players.

"The Hairy Ape was propaganda in the sense that it was a symbol of a man, who has lost his old harmony with nature, the harmony which he used to have as an animal and has not yet acquired in a spiritual way. Thus, not being able to find it on earth nor in heaven. he's in the middle, trying to make peace, taking the "woist punches from bot' of 'em." ... The subject here is the same ancient one that always was and always will be the one subject for drama, and that is man and his struggle with his own fate. The struggle used to be with the gods, but is now with himself, his own past, his attempt "to belong." (Eugene O'Neill in Playwrights on Playwriting, ed. Toby Cole, 1961)

In the late 1910s O'Neill dramas begun to gain recognition in New York. In 1918 he married the writer Agnes Boulton; they had two children. O'Neill's father died in 1921 from cancer, next year he lost his mother, and twelve months after that his brother Jamie, who suffered from alcoholism, died from a stroke. Eugene Jr. commited suicide in 1950, at the age of forty, by slitting his wrists and left ankle with a straight razor in his country cottage in Woodstock. Between the years 1918 and 1924 O'Neill wrote Anna Christie, finished in less than six weeks, The Emperor Jones, finished in about two weeks, The First Man, The Hairy Ape, The Fountain, and Welded. Nearly all his plays dealt either directly or indirectly with death, loss, and mourning. 

During the early 1920s O'Neill formed with Robert Edmond Jones and Kenneth Macgowan, a gifted producer, a "Triumvirate" that ran the Experimental Theater at the Provincetown Playhouse. While still married to Agnes, O'Neill used the help of his friend Macgowan to send roses to the beautiful actress Carlotta Monterey. O'Neill's second marriage ended in 1929. In the same year he married Carlotta Monterey, with whom he first settled in France, then in Sea Island, Georgia, and finally in California. O'Neill saw his children infrequently. He disinherited his son Shane because he did not approve of his son's life style, and his daughter Oona, because at the age of eighteen she married Charles Chaplin, who was fifty-four. Oona was his fourth wife. The couple settled down in Vevey, Switzerland; Chaplin had eight children with her. O'Neill never met his grandchildren.

The Pulitzer winning Beyond the Horizon (pub. 1920) was O'Neill's first important play. The story depicts two brothers, Andrew, the elder a practical realist, and the younger, Robert, a poetic idealist. Robert is incapable of managing the family farm. When Andrew returns from a long voyage, successful and wealthy, he finds Robert dying of tuberculosis. On his deathbed, Robert still dreams of freedom beyond the horizon. After H.L. Mencken's criticism of Welded (1924) O'Neill wrote to the critic George Jean Nathan: "Damn that word, 'realism!' When I first spoke to you of the play as a 'last word in realism,' I meant something 'really real,' in the sense of being spiritually true, not meticulously life-like." (in Selected Letters of Eugene O'Neill, edited by Travis Bogard and Jackson R. Bryer, 1988)

Mourning Becomes Electra, based on Aeschylus's Orestean trilogy, was O'Neill's version of the tragedy of the house of Atreus, set in 19th-century New England. The action centers around Lavinia (Electra). General Ezra Mannon, on his return from the American Civil war, is killed by his wife Christine. Lavinia avenges her father's murder by persuading her brother, Orin (Orestes), to kill her mother's lover. The death is followed by the suicide of the mother. Orin goes mad when he discovers that he has an incestuous passion for his sister. Lavinia locks herself in the family mansion, surrounded by the ghosts of the past.

By 1930 O'Neill was so well-known that the Marx Brothers parodies his style in their film Animal Crackers (1930) and Cole Porter celebrated him in the lyrics of 'You're the Top' (1934),  "You're the top! / You're an arrow collar / You're the top! / You're a Coolidge dollar, / You're the nimble tread / Of the feet of Fred Astaire, / You're an O'Neill drama / You're Whistler's mama!"

In 1935 O'Neill began work on a cycle of eleven plays, with the theme of the turmoils of American materialism. The cycle was never completed – only two plays have survived. On his final productive period O'Neill wrote the autobiographical Long Day's Journey into Night, an agonized portrait of his own family, the Tyrones in the play. Again the action takes place in one room. Mary Tyrone returns to her dope addiction: "None of us can help the things life has done to us" says Mary. Edmund, based on the author himself, is stricken with tuberculosis. The play was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1957. Hughie (pub. 1959) was a story about a small time gambler, and A Moon for the Misbegotten (pub. 1952) continued O'Neill's family history of the Tyrones.

At fifty O'Neill was at the peak of his artistic career. With his life he lived in  a Chinese-style, white concrete-block house on a 158-acre estate, thirty-five miles east of San Francisco.However, his remaining creative years were characterized by long and rare disease that caused progressive deterioration of cells of the cerebellum. The Iceman Cometh, perhaps the finest of O'Neill's tragedies, was written at the early stage of his illness. The story is set in a dockside bar on the lower west side of New York City. It concerns a group of drunken derelicts who spend their time in the back room of Henry Hope's saloon where they discuss their hopeless lives. One man wants to get back into the police force, another to be re-elected as a politician. Their daily routines are shattered when Hickey, a salesman and the son of a preacher, appears as a messiah, and encourages them to start rehabilitation. They find out that their new hero is himself a madman and murderer, who has killed his wife, and lapse once more into their comfortable world of whiskey.

Poor health also prevented O'Neill from attending the Nobel ceremonies in Stockholm, Sweden. By 1943, O'Neill could no longer grasp a pencil. After a failed production of A Moon for the Misbegotten (1943), he wrote no major new plays. O'Neill became gradually paralyzed and he died on November 27, 1953 in Boston. Shane O'Neill's family biography, which came out in 1959, was entitled The Curse of the Misbegotten.

For further reading: Eugene O'Neill: The Man and His Plays by B.H. Clark (1947); Eugene O'Neill and the Tragic Tension by D.V. Falk (1958, rev. ed. 1982); The Plays of Eugene O'Neill by J.H. Raleigh (1965); O'Neill's Scenic Image by T. Tiusanen (1969); A Drama of Souls by E. Törnqvist (1968); Contour in Time by T. Bogard (1972); Eugene O'Neill by F.I. Carpenter (1979); Tragedy, Modern Temper, and O'Neill by C. Ahuja (1984); Final Acts by J.E. Berlin (1985); Eugene O'Neill: An Annotated Bibliography by M. Smith and R. Eaton (1988); Staging O'Neill by Ronald Harold Wainscott (1988); Conversations with Eugene O'Neill, ed. by Mark W. Estrin (1990); Eugene O'Neill's Creative Struggle by Doris Alexander (1992); Down the Nights and Down the Days by Edward Lawrence (1996); Eugene O'Neill and His Eleven-Play Cycle by Donald Clifford Gallup (1998); The Cambridge Companion to Eugene O'Neill, ed. Michael Manheim (1998); Eugene O'Neill: Beyond Mourning and Tragedy by Stephen A. Black (2002); O'Neill: Life with Monte Cristo by Arthur Gelb and Barbara Gelb (2002); Eugene O'Neill's One-Act Plays: New Critical Perspectives by Michael Y. Bennett and Benjamin D. Carson (2012). See also: Eugenio Montale. Note: in his Nobel acceptance speech O'Neill considered the plays of August Strindberg the source of his own inspiration. O'Neill himself was the model for later American playwrights, such as Tennessee Williams, Arthur Miller, and Edward Albee.

Selected bibliography:

  • A Wife for a Life, 1913-1914 (written, pub. 1958)
  • Thirst, 1913-1914 (written, pub. 1958)
  • Warnings, 1913-1914 (written, pub. 1914)
  • Fog, 1913-1914 (written, publ. 1914)
  • Recklessness, 1913-1914 (written, pub. 1919)
    - Film adaptation 1933, prod. K.B.S. Productions Inc., dir. Victor Schertzinger, starring Conrad Nagel, Leila Hyams, Tommy Conlon, Claire Windsor
  • Bound East for Cardiff, 1913-1914 (written, prod. 1916, pub. 1958)
  • Servitude, 1913-1914 (written, published 1958)
  • Abortion, 1913-1914 (written, pub. 1958)
  • Thirst and Other One-Act Plays, 1914
  • The Sniper, 1915 (written, pub. 1958)
  • Before Breakfast, 1916
  • The Movie Man, 1916 (written, pub. 1958)
  • 'Ile, 1916 (written, publ. 1919)
  • In the Zone, 1916 (written, pub. 1919)
    - Vaaravyöhykkeessä: yksinäytöksinen näytelmä (suom. Aune Brotherus, 1948)
  • The Long Way Home, 1917
    - Films: 1940 (based on four plays), dir. John Ford, starring John Wayne, Thomas Mitchell, Ian Hunter, Ward Bond
  • The Moon of the Caribbees, 1916 (written, pub. 1919)
  • The Rope, 1918 (written, pub. 1919)
    - Köysi: yksinäytöksinen näytelmä (suom. Aune Brotherus, 1948)
  • The Dreamy Kid, 1918 (written, pub. 1920)
  • Beyond the Horizon, 1918 (written, pub. 1921)
    - Taivaanrannan tuolla puolen (suom. Toini Aaltonen, 1980)
    - TV play 1975, prod. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), dir. Rick Hauser, Michael Kahn, starring Richard Backus, Kate Wilkinson, John Randolph, Edward J. Moore, Maria Tucci
  • Where the Cross Is Made, 1918 (written, pub. 1919)
    - Ristin paikka: yksinäytöksinen näytelmä (suom. Aune Brotherus, 1937)
  • The Straw, 1919 (written, pub. 1921)
  • Gold, 1920
  • Anna Christie, 1920 (written, pub. 1923)
    - Anna Christie (suom. Irja Lindström, 1945)
    - Films: Kiri no minato, 1923, dir. Kenji Mizoguchi, written by Soichiro Tanaka; 1923, dir. John Griffith Wray, starring Blanche Sweet; 1930, prod. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, dir. Clarence Brown, starring Greta Garbo, Charles Bickford, George F. Marion, Marie Dressler; 1931, prod. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, dir. Jacques Feyder, starring Greta Garbo, Theo Shall; TV mini-series 1960, prod. Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI), dir. Sandro Bolchi; TV film 1964, prod. Yleisradio (YLE), dir. Stig Törnroos, starring Anja Pohjola, Åke Lindman
  • The Emperor Jones, 1920 (written, publ. 1921)
    - Keisari Jones (suom. Esko Elstelä, 1979)
    - Films: 1933, dir. Dudley Murphy, starring Paul Robeson, Dudley Digges, Frank H. Wilson, Fredi Washington; TV film 1938, prod. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), starring Robert Adams; TV film 1955, prod. J. Walter Thompson Agency, starring Ossie Davis
  • Diff'rent, 1920 (written, publ. 1921)
  • The Moon of the Caribbees and Six Other Plays of the Sea, 1921
  • The First Man, 1921 (written, pub. 1923)
  • The Hairy Ape, 1921 (written, publ. 1923)
    - Karvainen apina (suom. Urpo Lauri, s.a.)
    - Film 1944, dir. Alfred Santell, screenplay by Jules Levy, starring William Bendix, Susan Hayard
  • The Fountain, 1922 (written, publ. 1926)
  • Welded, 1923 (written, prod. 1924)
  • All God's Chillun Got Wings, 1923 (written, pub. 1924)
    - Neekeri (suom. Seere Sario, 1941)
  • Desire Under the Elms, 1924 (written, publ. 1925)
    - Intohimot jalavien alla (suom. Seere Salminen, 1937) / Intohimot jalavien varjossa (suom. Seere Sario, 1937)
    - Films: Qali bazrobidan, 1928, prod. Sakhkinmretsvi (Soviet Union), dir. Giorgi Makarov; 1958, dir. Delbert Mann, script Irwin Shaw; Liefde onder de olmen, TV film 1976, prod. Belgische Radio en Televisie (BRT), dir. Dré Poppe
  • Complete Works, 1924 (2 vols.)
  • Marco Millions, 1925 (written, publ 1927)
    - TV play 1939, dir. Michael Macowan, starring Griffith Jones, Catherine Lacey, Robert Harris
  • Lazarus Laughed, 1925-1926 (written, pub. 1927)
  • The Great God Brown, 1925 (written, pub. 1926)
  • Strange Interlude, 1926-1927 (written, pub. 1928)
    - Films: Strange Interlude, 1932, prod. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), Clark Gable, Norma Shearer; TV play 1988, prod. Bowden Productions Limited, dir. Herbert Wise, starring Ken Howard, Glenda Jackson, Edward Petherbridge, Kenneth Branagh
  • Dynamo, 1928 (written, publ. 1929)
  • Mourning Becomes Electra, 1929-1931 (trilogy: Homecoming; The Hunted; The Haunted)
    - Murheesta nousee Elektra / Elektran on murhe (suom. Jaakko Leppo, 1957) / Suru pukee Elektraa (suom. Leena Tamminen, 1989)
    - Films: 1948, dir. Dudley Nichols, starring Michael Redgrave, Rosalind Russell, Katina Paxinou; Trauer muss Elektra tragen, TV film 1970, prod. Hessischer Rundfunk (HR), dir. Peter Beauvais; Il Lutto si addice ad Elettra, TV drama 1972, dir. Fulvio Tolosso, starring Lidia Alfonsi, Alida Valli, Giancarlo Dettori; O Luto de Electra, 1992, dir. Artur Ramos, starring Rogério Paulo, Lourdes Norberto, Natália Luísa, Virgílio Castelo
  • Nine Plays, 1932
  • Ah, Wilderness!, 1932 (written, pub. 1933)
    - Oi nuoruus (suom. Kersti Bergroth, 1935; as radio play 1959; Aira Aalto, 1980)
    - Films: 1935, dir. by Clarence Brown; starring Wallace Beery, Lionel Barrymore, Mickey Rooney; TV prod. 1938, starring Percy Parsons, Kitty de Legh, Sam Payne, Simon Lack, Clive Baxter; Summer Holiday (musical version), 1948 , dir. Rouben Mamoulian, starring Mickey Rooney, Walter Huston, Gloria DeHaven, Agnes Moorehead; O Wildnis, TV drama 1959, prod. Südwestfunk (SWF), dir. Harald Braun; Ljuva ungdomstid, TV play 1961, dir. Hans Abramson, adaptation Gustaf Molander; Oh, divljino, TV drama 1967, prod. Radiotelevizija Beograd (Yugoslavia), dir. Ognjenka Milicevic; TV play 1976, prod. Circle in the Square Theatre, dir. Arvin Brown, starring William Swetland, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Victor Garber
  • Days Without End, 1933 (written, pub. 1934)
  • The Iceman Cometh, 1939 (written, pub. 1946)
    - Jäämies tulee (suom. Toini Aaltonen, 1958)
    - Films: TV play 1960, dir. Sidney Lumet, starring Jason Robards, Myron McCormick, Tom Pedi, James Broderick, Robert Redford, Farrell Pelly; Der Eismann kommt, TV drama 1968, prod. Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF), dir. Günter Gräwert, starring Günther Lüders, Bum Krüger, Walter Jokisch; 1973, dir. John Frankenheimer, starring Lee Marvin, Fredric March, Robert Ryan, Jeff Bridges
  • The Long Voyage Home: Seven Plays of the Sea, 1940
  • Long Day's Journey Into Night, 1941 (written, pub. 1955)
    - Pitkän päivän matka yöhön (suom. Ritva ja Timo Tiusanen 1964) / Pitkä päivänmatka yöhön (suom. Juha Siltanen, 1989) / Matka yöhön (suom. 1999)
    - Films: 1962, dir. Sidney Lumet, starring Ralph Richardson, Katherine Hepburn. "At the start of the picture, everything was peachy-pie normal. Both the lenses and the light could have been used for an Andy Hardy movie... As the scenes progress and the truth comes more and more agonizing, the lenses get wider and wider, the camera gets lower and lower, and the light harsher but darker, as the whole story of these people gets wrapped in night and the final, terrible truths are articulated." (Lumet in Making Movies, 1995); TV drama 1973, dir. Peter Wood, starring Laurence Olivier, Constance Cummings, Denis Quilley, Ronald Pickup; Viaje por una larga noche, 1977, prod. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, dir. Adrian Palomeque Garcia; TV film 1982, starring Thommie Blackwell, Ruby Dee, Earle Hyman, Peter Francis James; TV film 1987, dir. Jonathan Miller, starring Peter Gallagher, Jack Lemmon, Bethel Leslie, Jodie Lynne McClintock, Kevin Spacey
  • Plays, 1941 (3 vols., rev. ed. 1955)
  • A Touch of the Poet, 1935-1942 (written, pub. 1957)
    - Pisara runoilijaa (suom. Kirsti Porras, 1961) / Melkein runoilija (suom. Kirsti Porras, 1961)
  • Hughie, 1941-1942 (written, pub. 1959)
    - Yöportieeri: pienoisnäytelmä (suom. Merja Turunen, 1977)
    - TV play 1958, dir. Bengt Ekerot; TV drama 1983, dir. Frédéric Compain; TV play 1984, dir. Terry Hughes, starring Jason Robards, Jack Dodson
  • A Moon for the Misbegotten, 1943 (written, pub. 1952)
    - Kovaosaisten kuu (suom. Heikki Eteläpää, 1953)
  • Lost Plays, 1913-15, 1950
  • More Stately Mansions, 1953 (written, pub. 1964)
    - Kaikki maailan rikkaus (suom.)
  • Inscriptions: Eugene O’Neill to Carlotta Monterey O’Neill, 1960
  • Ten "Lost" Plays, 1964 (with a foreword by Bennett Cerf)
  • Later Plays, 1967 (ed. T. Bogard)
  • "Children of the Sea," and Three Other Unpublished Plays, 1972 (edited by Jennifer McCabe Atkinson; foreword by Frank Durham)
  • Poems, 1912-1944, 1979 (edited by Donald Gallup)
  • Eugene O'Neill at Work, 1981 (edited and annotated by Virginia Floyd) 
  • "The Theatre We Worked For": The Letters of. Eugene O'Neill to Kenneth Macgowan, 1982 (edited by Jackson R. Bryer, with the assistance of Ruth M. Alvarez)
  • The Calms of Capricorn, 1982 (developed from O’Neill’s scenario by Donald Gallup, with a transcription of the scenario)
  • Chris Christophersen, 1982 (foreword by Leslie Eric Comens)
  • A Tale of Possessors Self-Dispossessed, 1982 (unfinished)
  • Complete Plays, 1984 (3 vols.)
  • "Love and Admiration and Respect": The O'Neill-Commins correspondence, 1986 (edited by D. Commins)
  • "As Ever, Gene": The Letters of Eugene O'Neill to George Jean Nathan, 1987 (transcribed and edited, with introductory essays by Nancy L. Roberts and Arthur W. Roberts)
  • Selected Letters of Eugene O'Neill 1988 (edited by Travis Bogard and Jackson R. Bryer)
  • The Unfinished Plays: Notes for The Visit of Malatesta, The Last Conquest, Blind Alley Guy, 1988 (edited and annotated by Virginia Floyd)
  • The Unknown O’Neill: Unpublished or Unfamiliar Writings of Eugene O’Neill, 1988 (edited with commentaries by Travis Bogard)
  • The Last Will and Testament of an Extremely Distinguished Dog, 1999 (illustrated with paintings by John Martin Tracy)
  • A Wind Is Rising: The Correspondence of Agnes Boulton and Eugene O’Neill, 2000 (edited by William Davies King)
  • Early Plays, 2001 (edited with an introduction by Jeffrey H. Richards)
  • Collected Shorter Plays, 2007  (introduction by Robert Brustein)

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