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Zane Grey (1872-1939) - original name Pearl Grey


Prolific American writer and pioneer of Western as a new literary genre. Zane Grey produced over sixty books during his career, but commercial success did not bring critical respect. Grey presented the West as a moral battle ground, in which his characters are redeemed through a final confrontation with their past, or destroyed because of their inability to change. Grey's semioutlaw heroes were his most interesting creations, among them Lassiter in Riders of the Purple Sage (1912), a gunman who has lost a girl he loved to a Mormon preacher, and Buck Duane, the agonized killer of The Lone Star Ranger (1915). Randolph Scott played a former outlaw in Fritz Lang's film Western Union (1941), based on the novel. Grey's stories, set against the beautiful but harsh landscape of the West, have fascinated readers all over the world.

"Slingerland hated the railroad, and he could not see as Neale did, or any of the engineers or builders. This old trapper had the vision of the Indian – that far-seeing eye cleared by distance and silence, and the force of the great, lonely hills. Progress was great, but nature unspoiled was greater. If a race could not breed all stronger men, through its great movements, it might better not breed any, for the bad over-multiplied the good, and so their needs magnified into greed. Slingerland saw many shiningbands of steel across the plains and mountains, many stations and hamlets and cities, a growing and marvelous prosperity from timber, mines, farms, and in the distant end – a gutted West." (from The U.P. Trail, 1918)

Zane Grey was born in Zanesville, Ohio. His father was a farmer and preacher and finally a doctor, and mother Quaker, of Danish background; she had also had Native American heritage. Grey's great-great-grandfather was Colonel Ebenezer Zane, an exile from Denmark, who established Fort Henry in 1769. Before going to collage, Grey was a semi-professional baseball player. At sixteen, he was arrested in a brothel.

After graduating from the University of Pennsylvania with a degree in dentistry in 1896, Grey practiced in New York City until 1904. His office was on Thirty-first Street. During these years, he started to write, in a tiny kitchen under a gas lamp. Grey's first book, Betty Zane, was turned down by several publishers. The colorful frontier story, based on his ancestor's journal, was privately printed in 1904. Although the book gained a critical success, it sold poorly. Determined to be a writer, Grey quit dentistry, and continued his family story in Spirit of the Border (1905).

In 1908, Grey made a journey to the West with Colonel C.J. ('Buffalo') Jones, who told him tales of adventure on the plains, of roping wild animals and chasing mountain lions. The trip was a turning point in Grey's career. He had lived with Texas Rangers and wild-horse hunters and began then writing Western novels in the tradition of Owen Wister. The first was The Last of the Plainsmen (1908). Ripley Hitchcock, editor for Harper's, rejected it by saying, "I don't see enything in this to convince me that you can write either narrative or fiction."

However, Grey was encouraged by his wife, Lina Elise Roth of New York; they married in 1905 and lived for a period in a cottage at Lackawaxen, PA. On their honeymoon they went  to the Grand Canyon, where Grey returned later for hunting trips. "Dolly," as Grey called her,  supported his aspirations to become a professional writer. After Grey had spent all of his own money, the lived on her savings. Eventually Grey's Western romance The Heritage of the Desert (1910) was bought by Harper & Brothers. It sold well, but Riders of the Purple Sage was a bestseller, it sold two million copies, was filmed three times, and became Grey's best-known western.

The central character is an enterprising woman, Jane Witherspoon, a rich Mormon. "Trouble between the Mormons and the Gentiles of the community would make her unhappy. She was Mormon-born, and she was a friend of to poor and unfortunate Gentiles. She wished only to go on doing good and being happy. And she thought of what that great ranch meant to her. She loved it all – the grove of cottonwoods, the old stone house, the amber-tinted water, and the droves of shaggy, dusty horses and mustangs, the sleek, clean-limbed, blooded racers, and the browsing herds of cattle and the lean, sun-browned riders of the sage." Jane is too independent and she is not tolerated by the Elders of her Church, who are portrayed as villainous, patriarchal gangster. She finds protection for her ranch and herself from an mysterious hero, Lassiter, who comes riding out of the sage. Lassiter hates Mormons for his own reasons. This formula, in which a tormented outlaw fights to protect the good and finds love, Grey used in many novels.

JUDKINS: My name is Judkins. I don't know you, but I know... I've heard what you are... I heard you killed some men in the North.
LASSITER: Not just in the North.

(from the 1996 film Riders of the Purple Sage, dir. by Charles Haid)

Much of Grey's knowledge of the West was based on research or trips in the regions he wrote about. He also interviewed authentic residents of the Wild West. In 1918 Grey moved to California, and lived there for the rest of his life. He built a large, Spanish-style house in Altadena, and continued to produce the usual 100 000 words – in longhand – each month, and never revised his manuscripts after the first draft. Grey disliked cities, opposed drinking and smoking, and criticized modern development. As a husband, he was repeatedly unfaithful, but his wife remained steadfastly loyal to him.

Grey's non-fiction includes several tales of fishing. In Tales of Swordfish and Tuna (1927) Grey tells that he had exceptionally good luck in locating schools of large tuna. While not writing, Grey fished in the South Seas, or hunted along the Rogue River in Oregon, or spent time on Catalina Island. According to some sources, he fished up to 300 days of the year. Women regularly accompanied him on his trips. There are photograps taken by Grey of nude women and himself performing various sexual activities (Zane Grey: His Life, His Adventures, His Women by Thomas H. Pauly, 2005, pp. 10-11). Grey died of a sudden heart attack on October 23, 1939, at his home in Altadena. The New York Times included in his obituary a negative appraisal: "His art is archaic, with all the traits of archaic art. It lacks fluence of facility; behind it always we feel a pressure toward expression, a striving for a freer and easier utterance." After second thoughts, the newspaper published a special editorial in defence of Grey.

Several of Grey's novels have been published posthumously, among others The Reef Girl in 1977. His favorite subjects were settlers, cowboys, desperadoes, Indians, cattle drives, the advance of technology, family feuds, feuds between cattlemen and sheepherders, the bison hunting (The Thundering Herd), the defeat of the American Indian – all the aspects of West that later generations of writers and filmmakers have utilized. Violence is an essential part of the basic pattern of a Western; shooting is a kind of language of its own. His style has been called antiquated, but it had much emotional power: "Memory stirred to the sight of the familiar corner. He had been in several bad gun fights in this town, and the scene of one of them lay before him. The warmth and intimacy of old pleasant associations suffered a chill." (from Sunset Pass, 1931) The U.P. Trail (1918) has been criticized for its melodramatic plot but acknowledged for its reliable historical description about the building of the transcontinental railroad.

The Vanishing American (1925) recycled the idea of the noble savage familiar from The Last of the Mohicans or from the works of Jean Jacques Rousseau. The social commentary on the treatment of American Indians on the reservation included also a love theme between the red man and white woman. George B. Seitz's silent classic from 1925, based on the book and shot in Monument Valley, is in early example of movies that dramatized the progression of American Indian life, and their hopeless situation in a way that no film previously had attempted. "Promises from the white establishment reek hypocrisy: "We will help you live as white men live. We will teach you to farm, to turn the desert into green fields." Yet the start of the twentieth century finds the Indians living meagerly on inadequate reservations." (from Great Hollywood Westerns by Ted Sennett, 1990) Richard Dix played Nophaie, the Navajo leader, who dies in a fight against a corrupt government agent Booker (Noah Beery).

In such short stories as 'The Great Slave,' 'Yaqui, and 'Tigre' Grey showed his knowledge of Indian tribes and their history and the peon system of Mexican plantations. In 'Tappan's Burro,' about a wandering gold prospector and his faithful burro, Grey masterfully described the beauty of desert plains, barren mountain country, and forest land.

"Madge's sombre eyes gazed out over the great void. But, full of thought and passion as they were, they did not see the beauty of that scene. But Tappan saw it. And in some strange sense the colour and wilderness and sublimity seemed the expression of a new state in his heart. Under him sheered down the ragged and cracked cliffs of the Rim, yellow and gold and grey, full of caves and crevices, ledges for eagles and niches for lions, a thousand feet down to the upward edge of the long green slopes and canyons, and so on down and down into the abyss of forested ravine and ridge, rolling league on league away to the encompassing barrier of purple mountain ranges." (from 'Tappan's Burro')

From the beginning, Paramount used Grey's name as a draw. Wanderer of the Wasteland (1924), a silent film directed by Irvin Willat, was the first screen western shot entirely in color. In the 1930s lowbudget Zane Grey movies were highly popular and profitable for Paramount. The Thundering Herd (1933), which dealt with buffalo hunters and marauding Indians, is considered one of the best Zane Grey quickies. Footage from William K. Howard's film from 1925 was used in the scene of the stampede of wagons across a frozen lake. According to one estimation, about 100 Western films have been based on Grey's stories. Grey also wrote two screenplays, The Vanishing Pioneer and Rangle River.

In the early phase of his career as a director, Henry Hathaway leant on Grey and the actor Randolph Scott, but by 1935 both Hathaway and Scott were on their way to bigger productions. Heritage of the Desert (1932) was Scott's first starring role. In Wild Horse Mesa (1932), a tale of wild horse taming, Scott stopped Fred Kohler who trapped wild stallions with barbed wire. Under the Tonto Rim (1933) depicted a slow-witted cowboy who wins his manhood and the boss's daughter. In the romantic Western Man of the Forest (1933), Scott's pet lion helps him to escape from jail. To the Last Man (1933), in which Shirley Temple made her debut, was a story of a family feud healed by young love. There is also a 'tastefully photographed' nude swimming sequence. The Last Round-Up (1934), starring Randolph Scott, was based on Zane Gray's novel The Border Legion, a story about a gang of rustlers and their boss who sacrifices his life for two young lovers. Stock footage from the silent version and Border Legion (1930) were used in the movie. Fritz Lang's Western Union (1941) was beautifully photographed by Edward Cronjager.

For further reading: Zane Grey: A Biography by Frank Gruber (1969); Zane Grey by C. Jackson (1973); Zane Grey by A. Ronald (1975); Zane Grey by Carol Gay (1979); Zane Grey's Arizona by Candace C. Kant (1984); Zane Grey: A Photographic Odyssey by L. Grey (1985); Zane Grey, A Documented Portrait by G.M. Farley (1985); Selling the Wild West by Christine Bold (1987); West of Everything by Jane Tompkins (1992); Zane Grey: His Life, His Adventures, His Women by Thomas H. Pauly (2005)  - Other films (not listed below) based of Zane Grey's stories: Arizona Mahoney, 1936 (based on 'Stairs of Sand'); The Dude Ranger, 1934; The Yukon Patrol, 1942, dir. by William Withey (based on King of the Royal Mounted) - Trivia: Colonel Potter of the television series M*A*S*H frequently noted that his favorite writer was Zane Grey.  Other classic western writers: Louis L´Amour, Owen Wister, Frederick Marryat

Selected works:

  • Betty Zane, 1904
    - Betty Zane: seikkailukertomus Pohjois-Amerikasta intiaanisotien ajoilta (suomentanut O. E. N[yman], 1925)
  • Spirit of the Border, 1905
    - Rajaseudun henki (suom. O. E. N[yman], 1925)
  • The Last of the Plainsmen, 1908
  • The Last Trail, 1909
    - Viimeinen ajo (suom. O. E. N[yman], 1925)
    - films: 1921, starring Maurice Flynn; 1927, starring Tom Mix; 1933, dir. by James Tinling, starring George O'Brien, Claire Trevor and El Brendel
  • Nassau, Cuba, Yucatan, Mexico, 1909
  • The Short Stop, 1909
  • The Young Forester, 1910
    - Nuori metsänvartija (suom. 1934)
  • The Heritage of the Desert, 1910
    - Erämaan kukka (suom. Väinö Nyman, 1933)
    - films: 1924, dir. by Irvin Willat; Heritage of the Desert (aka: When the West Was Young), 1932, dir. by Henry Hathaway, starring Randolph Scott; remade in 1939, dir. by Leslie Selander, screenplay Norman Houston, starring Donald Woods, Evelyn Venable and Russell Hayden 
  • The Young Pitcher, 1911
  • The Young Lion Hunter, 1911
  • Ken Ward in the Jungle, 1912
  • Riders of the Purple Sage, 1912
    - Purppurarinteiden ratsastajat (suomentanut Väinö Nyman, 1924; Don Engström, 1981)
    - films: 1918 with William Farnum; 1925 with Tom Mix; 1931, dir. by Hamilton McFadden, starring George O'Brien; 1941, dir. by James Tingling; starring George Montgomery; 1996, dir. by Charles Haid, starring Ed Harris, Amy Madigan, Henry Thomas, G.D. Spradlin
  • Desert Gold, 1913
    - Erämaan kultaa (suom. Väinö Nyman, 1921)
    - film: 1936, dir. by James P. Hogan, starring Buster Crabbe, Robert Cummings and Marsha Hunt
  • The Light of Western Stars, 1914
    - Lännen tähtien alla (suom. A. J. Salonen, 1920)
    - films: 1919, starring Dustin Farnum; 1925, dir. by William A. Howard; 1930, dir. by Otto Brower; 1940, dir. by Lesley Selander, screenplay Norman Houston, starring Victor Jory, Jo Ann Sayers and Russell Hayden 
  • The Rustlers of the Pecos Country, 1914
  • The Lone Star Ranger, 1915
    - Yksinäisen tähden harhailija (suomentanut Väinö Nyman, 1924; radionäytelmä, 1993)
    - films: 1929, dir. by George O'Brien; 1942, dir. by James Tinling, starring John Kimbrought, Sheila Ryan and Jonathan Hale 
  • The Rainbow Trail, 1915
    - Satumaan lilja (suom. Väinö Nyman, 1923)
    - film: 1932, dir. by David Howard, sequel to Riders of the Purple Sage, starring George O'Brien, Cecilia Parker and Minna Gombell 
  • The Border Legion, 1916
    - films: 1930, dir. by Otto Brower; The Last Roundup, 1934, dir. by Henry Hathaway, starring Randolph Scott, Barbara Fritchie and Monte Blue; 1940, dir. by Joseph Kane, starring Roy Rogers, George 'Gabby' Hayes and Carol Hughes 
  • Wildfire, 1917
    - Tuliharja (suom. Väinö Nyman, 1925; Don Engström, 1980)
    - film: Red Canyon, 1949, dir. by George Sherman, starring Ann Blyth, Howard Duff and George Brent  
  • The Desert of Wheat, 1918
  • The UP Trail, 1918
    - Lännen rautatie (suom. Don Engström, 1978)
  • Tales of Fishes, 1919
  • Man of the Forest, 1920
    - Metsien mies (suom. Wäinö Nyman, 1922)
    - films: 1921; 1926; 1933, dir. by Henry Hathaway, starring Randolph Scott, Verna Hillie and Harry Carey 
  • The Red-Headed Outfield and Other Baseball Stories, 1920
  • The Mysterious Rider, 1921
    - Salaperäinen ratsastaja (suom. Väinö Nyman, 1922)
  • Tales of Lonely Trails, 1922
  • To the Last Man, 1922
    - Viimeiseen mieheen (suom. Väinö Nyman, 1928)
    - films: 1933, dir. by Henry Hathaway, starring Radolph Scott; 1935, dir. by David Howard; Thunder Mountain, 1947, dir. by Lew Landers, starring Tim Holt
  • The Day of the Beast, 1922
  • Wanderer of the Wasteland, 1923
    - Erämaan vaeltaja (suomentanut Väinö Nyman, 1929; Don Engström, 1979)
    - films: 1924, dir. by Irvin Willat; 1935, dir. by Otho Lovering, starring Dean Jagger, Gail Patrick and Edward Ellis 
  • Tappan's Burro, 1923
  • Call of the Canyon, 1924
    - Kanjonin kutsu (suom. Väinö Nyman, 1926)
  • Roping Lions in the Grand Canyon, 1924
  • Tales of Southern Rivers, 1924
  • The Thundering Herd, 1925
    - Jylisevät kaviot (suom. Don Engström, 1981)
    - films: silent version 1925, dir. by William K. Howard; 1933, dir. by Henry Hathaway, starring Randolph Scott, Judith Allen and Buster Crabbe
  • Tales of Fishing Virgin Seas, 1925
  • The Vanishing American, 1925
    - films: 1925, dir. by George B. Seitz, starring Richard Dix, Noah Beery and Lois Wilson; 1955, dir. by Joseph Kane, starring Scott Brady, Audrey Totter and Forrest Tucker 
  • Tales of the Angler's Eldorado, New Zealand, 1926
  • Under the Tonto Rim, 1926
    - films: 1933, dir. by Henry Hathaway, starring Stuart Erwin, Fred Kohler and Raymond Hatton; 1947, dir. by Lew Landers, starring Tim Holt, Nan Leslie and Richard Martin  
  • Tales of Swordfish and Tuna, 1927
  • Forlorn River, 1927
    - Kadotettu joki (suom. Don Engström, 1978)
    - films: silent film 1929, dir. by John Waters; Fornlorn River (aka: River of Destiny) 1937, dir. by Charles Barton, starring Buster Crabbe, June Martel and Harvey Stephens 
  • Nevada, 1928
    - Nevada (suom. Don Engström, 1977)
  • Wild Horse Mesa, 1928
    - films: 1932, dir. by Henry Hathaway, starring Randolph Scott; remade 1947, dir. by Wallace A. Grissell,screenplay Norman Houston, starring Tim Holt, Nan Leslie and Richard Martin
  • Tales of Fresh Water Fishing, 1928
  • Don: The Story of a Lion Dog , 1928
  • Fighting Caravans, 1929
    - films: Fighting Caravans (aka: Blazing Arrows), 1931, dir. by Otto Bower and David Burton, starring Gary Cooper; Wagon Wheels, dir. by Charles Barton, starring Randolph Scott
  • The Shepherd of Guadaloupe, 1930
  • The Wolf Tracker, 1930
  • Sunset Pass, 1931
    - Auringonlaskun sola (suom. 1935)
    - films: 1933, dir. by Henry Hathaway, starring Randolph Scott; remade in 1946, dir. by William Berke, starring James Warren, Nan Leslie and John Laurenz 
  • Tales of Tahitian Waters, 1931
  • Zane Grey's Book of Camps and Trails, 1931
  • Arizona Ames, 1932
    - film: Thunder Trail, 1937, dir. by Charles Barton, starring Gilbert Roland, Charles Bickford and Marsha Hunt 
  • Robbers' Roost, 1932
    - film: 1933, dir. by Louis King, starring George O'Brien and Maureen O'Sullivan, screenplay by Dudley Nichols who wrote John Ford's classical Western Stagecoach (1939)
  • The Drift Fence, 1933
  • The Hash Knife Outfit, 1933
    - Karjavarkaat (suom. Don Engström, 1982)
  • The Code of the West, 1934
    - film: Home on the Range, 1935, dir. by Arthur Jacobson, starring Randolph Scott, Jackie Coogan, Evelyn Brent
  •  Thunder Mountain, 1935
    - Ukkosvuori (suom. 1939)
    - films: 1935, dir. by David Howard, starring George O'Brien, Barbara Fritchie and Frances Grant; 1947. dir. by Lew Landers, screenplay Norman Houston, starring Tim Holt, Martha Hyer and Richard Martin
  • The Trail Driver, 1936
    - Aavikon ratsastaja (suom. Werner Anttila, 1939)
  • The Lost Wagon Train, 1936
  • King of the Royal Mounted, 1936-46 (7 vols.)
  • West of the Pecos, 1937
    - Texasin tyttö (suom. Aune Suomalainen, 1944) / Pecos-joelta länteen (suom. Don Engström, 1982)
    - film 1945, dir. by Ed Killy, screenplay Norman Houston, starring Robert Mitchum, Barbara Hale and Richard Martin 
  • An American Angler in Australia, 1937
  • Raiders of Spanish Peaks, 1938
    - Yöllinen hyökkäys (suom. Tauno Nuotio, 1939)
    - film: The Arizona Raiders, 1936 , dir. by James P. Hogan, starring Buster Crabbe, Raymond Hatton and Marsha Hunt 
  • Majesty’s Rancho, 1938
  • Western Union, 1939
    - film: 1941, prod. Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, dir. by Friz Lang, starring Randolph Scott and Robert Young
  • Knights of the Range, 1939
    - film: 1940, dir. by Lesley Selander, screenplay Norman Houston, starring Russell Hayden, Victor Jory and Jean Parker 
  • 30,000 on the Hoof, 1940
  • Twin Sombreros, 1941
    - Karjatila Twin Sombreros (suom. Don Engström, 1980)
    - film: The Gunfighters (aka: The Assassin), 1947, dir. by George Waggner, screenplay Alan Le May, starring Randolph Scott,Barbara Britton and Bruce Cabot
  • Zane Grey Omnibus, 1943
  • Stairs of Sand, 1943
  • The Wilderness Trek, 1944
  • Shadow on the Trail, 1946
  • Valley of Wild Horses, 1947
  • Rogue River Feud, 1948
  • The Deer Stalker, 1949
  • The Maverick Queen, 1950
    - film: 1956, dir. by Joseph Kane, starring Barbara Stanwyck, Barry Sullivan and Scott Brady
  • The Dude Ranger, 1951
  • Captives of the Desert, 1952
  • Zane Grey's Adventures in Fishing, 1952
  • Wyoming, 1953
  • Lost Pueblo, 1954
  • Black Mesa, 1955
    - Vaarojen ylänkö (suom. Sirpa Clarin, 1967)
  • Stranger from the Tonto, 1956
    - Tuntematon ratsastaja (suom. Irja Hämäläinen, 1967)
  • The Fugitive Trail, 1957
  • The Arizona Clan, 1958
  • Horse Heaven Hill, 1959
  • The Ranger and Other Stories, 1960
  • Blue Feather and Other Stories , 1961
  • Boulder Dam , 1963
  • Zane Grey Outdoorsman, 1972 (selected and edited by George Reiger)
  • The Adventures of Finspot, 1974 (introd. by Betty Zane Grey Grosso)
  • Zane Grey's Greatest Western Stories, 1975
  • Zane Grey's Greatest Indian Stories, 1975
  • Zane Grey's Greatest Animal Stories, 1975
  • Yaqui and Other Indian Stories, 1976
  • Shark!, 1976
  • The Buffalo Hunter, 1977
  • Lost in the Never Never and Silvermane, 1977
  • The Reef Girl, 1977 (foreword by Loren Grey)
  • The Westener, 1977
  • Savage Kingdom, 1979
  • Zane Grey's Tales from the Fisherman's Log, 1979
  • Riders of Vengeance, 1981
  • The Lord of Lackawaxen Creek, 1981
  • The Secret of Quaking Asp Cabin and Other Stories, 1983 (with a foreword by Loren Grey)
  • Last of the Duanes, 1983
  • The Undiscovered Zane Grey Fishing Stories, 1983 (edited and with a biographical preface and background vignettes by George Reiger, foreword by James A. Michener)
  • The Wolf Tracker and Other Animal Tales, 1984 (foreword by Loren Grey)
  • Zane Grey: A Photographic Odyssey, 1985 (text by Loren Grey)
  • Tales of Lonely Trails, 1986-88 (2 vols., foreword by Loren Grey)
  • Shark: Killer of the Deep, 1987
  • Tigre and Other Stories, 1988
  • Avalanche and Other Stories, 1988
  • The Camp Robber and Other Stories, 1990
  • Silvermane and Other Stories, 1991
  • The Best of Zane Grey, Outdoorsman: Hunting and Fishing Tales, 1992 (selected and edited by George Reiger)
  • George Washington, Frontiersman, 1994 (edited, with an introduction by Carlton Jackson)
  • Three Complete Novels, 1994 (edited by John Gabriel Hunt; Riders of the Purple Sage, The Rainbow Trail, & The Lone Star Ranger)
  • The Fort Henry Saga: Complete in One Volume, 2000
  • Zane Grey on Fishing, 2003 (edited and with an introduction by Terry Mort, foreword by Loren Grey)
  • Dolly & Zane Grey: Letters from a Marriage, 2008 (edited and with commentary by Candace C. Kant)
  • The Zane Grey Frontier Trilogy: Betty Zane, The Last Trail, The Spirit Of The Border, 2009

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